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By H. Lukar. California State University, Fresno. 2018.

Clark MR: Pain; in Coffey CE order zithromax 250mg with amex, Cummings JL (eds): Textbook of Geriatric Neuropsychiatry trusted 100mg zithromax. Clark MR trusted zithromax 250 mg, Swartz KL: A conceptual structure and methodology for the systematic approach to the evaluation and treatment of patients with chronic dizziness discount zithromax 100mg overnight delivery. Compton P trusted zithromax 250mg, Darakjian J, Miotto K: Screening for addiction in patients with chronic pain and ‘problem- atic’ substance use: Evaluation of a pilot assessment tool. Cote P, Hogg-Johnson S, Cassidy JD, et al: The association between neck pain intensity, physical functioning, depressive symptomatology and time-to-claim-closure after whiplash. Crombez G, Eccleston C, Baeyens F, et al: When somatic information threatens, catastrophic thinking enhances attentional interference. Dersh J, Polatin PB, Gatchel RJ: Chronic pain and psychopathology: Research findings and theoretical considerations. Dickens C, Jayson M, Sutton C, et al: The relationship between pain and depression in a trial using paroxetine in sufferers of chronic low back pain. Druss BG, Rosenheck RA, Sledge WH: Health and disability costs of depressive illness in a major U. Dworkin SF, Von Korff M, LeResche L: Multiple pains and psychiatric disturbance: An epidemiologic investigation. Edwards R, Augustson EM, Fillingim R: Sex-specific effects of pain-related anxiety on adjustment to chronic pain. Emanuel EJ, Fairclough DL, Daniels ER, et al: Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: Attitudes and experiences of oncology patients, oncologists, and the public. Ericsson M, Poston WS, Linder J, et al: Depression predicts disability in long-term chronic pain patients. Fishbain DA, Cutler RB, Rosomoff HL, et al: Chronic pain-associated depression: Antecedent or con- sequence of chronic pain? Fishbain DA, Cutler RB, Rosomoff HL, et al: Impact of chronic pain patients’ job perception variables on actual return to work. Fishbain DA, Cutler RB, Rosomoff HL, et al: Prediction of ‘intent’, ‘discrepancy with intent’, and ‘discrepancy with nonintent’ for the patient with chronic pain to return to work after treatment at a pain facility. Fishbain DA, Cutler RB, Rosomoff HL, et al: Validity of self-report drug use in chronic pain patients. Fishbain DA, Goldberg M, Rosomoff RS, et al: Completed suicide in chronic pain. Perspectives on Pain and Depression 21 Fishbain DA, Rosomoff HL, Cutler RB, et al: Do chronic pain patients’ perceptions about their preinjury jobs determine their intent to return to the same type of job post-pain facility treatment. Fishbain DA, Rosomoff HL, Rosomoff RS: Drug abuse, dependence: Addiction in chronic pain patients. Fisher BJ, Haythornthwaite JA, Heinberg LJ, et al: Suicidal intent in patients with chronic pain. Folkman S, Lazarus RS, Gruen RJ, et al: Appraisal, coping, health status, and psychological symptoms. Fordyce W, Fowler R, Lehmann J, et al: Operant conditioning in the treatment of chronic pain. Fordyce WE, Lansky D, Calsyn DA, et al: Pain measurement and pain behavior. Forseth KO, Husby G, Gran JT, et al: Prognostic factors for the development of fibromyalgia in women with self-reported musculoskeletal pain. Gardea MA, Gatchel RJ, Mishra KD: Long-term efficacy of biobehavioral treatment of temporo- mandibular disorders. Gaynes BN, Burns BJ, Tweed DL, et al: Depression and health-related quality of life. Geisser ME, Roth RS, Theisen ME, et al: Negative affect, self-report of depressive symptoms, and clinical depression: Relation to the experience of chronic pain. Greenberg J, Burns JW: Pain anxiety among chronic pain patients: Specific phobia or manifestation of anxiety sensitivity? Greenwald BD, Narcessian EJ, Pomeranz BA: Assessment of physiatrists’ knowledge and perspectives on the use of opioids: Review of basic concepts for managing chronic pain.

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Anglo-American patients sought pills and injections discount zithromax 500 mg without a prescription, denial of pain cheap zithromax 100 mg without prescription, and reassuring clinical contacts order 500mg zithromax otc. In contrast cheap 100mg zithromax with visa, the Chinese patients preferred salves purchase zithromax 100mg with visa, oils, creams, and com- 164 ROLLMAN presses and nontraditional medicine, although Chinese dentists (and the Scandinavian ones) shared the American preference for using pharmaceuti- cal treatments. Interestingly, although Scandinavian patients did not want to be treated with local anesthetics, many volunteered that they accepted this treatment for their dentist’s peace of mind. It is rare for anthropologists to go into the field in order to study pain behavior within an isolated cultural group. One exception is Sargent’s (1984) study, conducted in the mid-1970s, of the Bari- ba, a major group of about 400,000 persons living in Benin and Nigeria who are “notable for consistently demonstrating an ‘absence of manifest behav- ior’ when confronted with apparently painful stimuli such as childbirth, wounds, or initiation ordeals” (p. Sargent interviewed 120 women of reproductive age in a small village regarding their behavioral ideals and ac- tual behavior during delivery, spoke to numerous indigenous midwives and village leaders, and attended a number of deliveries. Tellingly, one local physician explained that the Bariba equate pain with cowardice, a source of enormous shame. They pride themselves on the courage of their men in war and their women in childbirth and disparage the behavior of other groups that express pain openly through complaints or behavioral expres- sions. Not surprisingly, the Bariba have few words with which to describe pain, although they do distinguish between pain sensation and suffering. Social modeling (Craig, 1986), from childhood, appears to shape the behav- ior of tribal members. Stoicism is not limited to pain; Bariba are expected to suppress grief and other negative emotions. Honeyman and Jacobs (1996) went into the Australian outback to study pain behavior and beliefs among the members of a small aboriginal commu- nity. They observed that aboriginal children show few signs of distress and that adults minimize any overt pain behaviors. When questioned individu- ally, community members acknowledged pain, including long-term low back pain, but none showed public pain or illness behaviors of the sort seen in Western society. Also, it was extremely rare for any of them to seek medical attention for pain problems. Honeyman and Jacobs proposed that: the concept of illness as a social process, separate from a biological malfunc- tion termed disease, allows us to see these people as acting appropriately to their cultural setting. In this society there are strong community expectations about tolerating and not expressing or displaying pain. This was evidenced by the few public back pain reactions we saw and the reluctance to talk about pain in front of others. ETHNOCULTURAL VARIATIONS IN PAIN 165 The findings emphasize the need for sensitive questioning of patients about their symptoms, particularly when they may come from a group where emotional expression of symptoms is discouraged. Given the psychosocial perspective on cultural differ- ences in pain, it would be interesting to look for evidence concerning ethno- cultural variation in children’s pain. The task is not easy because of problems in assessing pain in young children. Recent years have seen numerous ad- vances in developing physiological measures, behavioral observations, and self-report measures (McGrath, 1995; McGrath et al. Little attention has been paid to the need to validate these scales in dif- ferent cultural settings. Villarruel and Denyes (1991) developed alterna- tive versions of the “Oucher” scale for Hispanic and African American chil- dren. The Oucher comprises a series of six photographs of a 4-year-old White boy showing facial expressions indicating various levels of pain. A pediatric patient is asked to point to the picture that best reflects his or her own level of hurt. Using photographs of Hispanic and African Ameri- can children, taken when they were or were not experiencing pain, the au- thors established an ordering of six photographs that other children could agree represented a progression of pain expression. It remains to be established whether this particular measure will reveal any cross- cultural differences in children’s pain levels, whether scales tailored to ethnic origin or race, although culturally sensitive, aid in either pain as- sessment or in strengthening communication between medical practition- ers and children of different cultural groups, and whether culture-free measures (such as a series of face drawings; Chambers & Craig, 1998; Chambers, Giesbrecht, Craig, Bennett, & Huntsman, 1999) can achieve both validity and universality in pain assessment. Abu-Saad (1984) interviewed Arab American, Asian American, and Latin American school children, asking what caused pain for them, what words they used to describe pain (“like a hurt” was the most common descriptor in each group), how they felt when they are in pain, and how they coped with pain.

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Aigner N generic zithromax 500 mg amex, Petje G generic 100mg zithromax amex, Schneider W cheap zithromax 250 mg on-line, Krasny C generic zithromax 250mg on line, Grill F purchase zithromax 500 mg on-line, Landsiedl F (2002) Ju- Orthop 13: 281–5 venile bone-marrow oedema of the acetabulum treated by iloprost. Gallistl S, Reitinger T, Linhart W, Muntean W (1999) The role of in- J Bone Joint Surg Br 84: 1050–2 herited thrombotic disorders in the etiology of Legg-Calve-Perthes 3. Barwood S, Baillieu C, Boyd R, Brereton K, Low J, Nattrass G, Graham disease in the very young child. J Pediatr Orthop B 15: 16-22 H (2000) Analgesic effects of botulinum toxin A: a randomized, pla- 20. Ghanem I, Khalife R, Haddad F, Kharrat K, Dagher F (2005) Recurrent cebo-controlled clinical trial. Dev Med Child Neurol 42: 116–21 Legg-Calve-Perthes disease revisited: fake or reality? Bassett GS, Apel DM, Wintersteen VG, Tolo VT (1991) Measurement of B 14: 422-5 femoral head microcirculation by Laser Doppler Flowmetry. Glueck CJ, Crawford A, Roy D, Freiberg R, Glueck H, Stroop D (1996) Orthop 11: 307–13 Association of antithrombotic factor deficiencies and hypofibrinoly- 6. Hall DJ, Harrison MH, Burwell RG (1979) Congenital abnormalities and déformations caracteristiques de l’extremité supérieure du fémur. Clinical evidence that children with Perthes’ disease Rev Chir 42: 54 may have a major congenital defect. Moberg A, Rehnberg L (1992) Incidence of Perthes’ disease in Up- (1999) Does thrombophilia play an aetiological role in Legg-Calve- psala, Sweden. Hefti F, Clarke NMP (2006) The »Epidemiology« of treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: Statistical analysis of 116 hips. An investigation among the members of the Euro- Orthop 11: 153–8 pean Pediatric Orthopaedic Society. Herring JA, Neustadt JB, Williams JJ, Early JS, Browne RH (1992) The Perthes’ disease. Int Orthop 15: 13–6 lateral pillar classification of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. Pettersson H, Wingstrand H, Thambert C, Nilsson IM, Jonsson K Part II: Prospective multicenter study of the effect of treatment on (1990) Legg-Calve-Perthes disease in hemophilia: incidence and outcome. Pillai A, Atiya S, Costigan PS (2005) The incidence of Perthes‘ disease Legg-Calve-Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 68: versus surgery for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. Purry NA (1982) The incidence of Perthes disease in three popula- unilateral Perthes’ disease. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 69: 243–50 tion groups in the eastern cape region of South Africa. Joseph B, Srinivas G, Thomas R (1996) Management of Perthes Kindern und Jugendlichen nach Polychemotherapie. Kalenderer O, Agus H, Ozcalabi IT, Ozluk S (2005) The importance of Femoris und ihre Beziehung zur Hüftkopfnekrose (Morbus Perthes). Kealey W, Mayne E, McDonald W, Murray P, Cosgrove A (2000) The femoral valgus osteotomy in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. Orthope- role of coagulation abnormalities in the development of Perthes’ dics 25: p513–7 disease. Kealey W, Lappin K, Leslie H, Sheridan B, Cosgrove A (2004) Endo- lateral pillar classification and Catterall classification of Legg-Calvé- crine Profile and Physical Stature of Children With Perthes Disease. J Pediatr Orthop 22: prognostic significance of the subchondral fracture and a two- 464–70 group classification of the femoral head involvement. Kumasaka Y, Harada K, Watanabe H, Higashihara T, Kishimoto H, Surg (Am) 66: 479–89 Sakurai K, Kozuka T (1991) Modified epiphyseal index for MRI in 65. Shang-li L, Ho TC (1991) The role of venous hypertension in the Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD). Lappin K, Kealey D, Cosgrove A (2002) Herring classification: how 194–200 useful is the initial radiograph? Boston Med ease in Greater Glasgow: is there an association with deprivation? Sponseller PD, Desai SS, Millis MB (1988) Comparison of femoral and Legg-Calve-Perthes disease and the consequences of surgical treat- innominate osteotomies for the treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes ment. Livesey J, Hay S, Bell M (1998) Perthes disease affecting three female 68. Stevens D, Tao S, Glueck C (2001) Recurrent Legg-Calve-Perthes dis- first-degree relatives.

Five-year survival rates ranging from 78% to 84% and ten-year survival rates ranging from 36% to 64% have been reported after this combined treatment generic 250 mg zithromax amex. Since half of the tumors occur in the sacrum generic zithromax 500mg without prescription, individual sacral roots often need to be sacrificed during the resec- ⊡ Fig trusted 500mg zithromax. Since the surgical options in the Intraspinal tumors and neoplasms associated area of the spinal canal are very limited buy discount zithromax 250 mg on line, the patients die with congenital anomalies after a few years cheap zithromax 500 mg with mastercard. Local disorders This hereditary disorder is described in detail in chap- Intraspinal tumors occur either as independent neoplasms ter 4. The neurofibromas located with other anomalies of the spine or certain hereditary in and around the spinal canal can lead to a characteristic disorders. In- factors for strong progression are the early onset of the traspinal anomalies are particularly common in unilateral scoliosis, a pronounced kyphotic component and an apex segmentation defects with a contralateral hemivertebra. Intraspinal neu- Intraspinal tumors have also been described in connection rofibromas are present in what is known as the dystrophic with the Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome. On the other in the area of the cauda equina): ependymomas (com- hand, only around 15% of patients with this disease suffer monest), astrocytomas, lipomas and teratomas. Neurological symptoms occur in 15% of cases, and paravertebral soft tissue tumors are also occa- Particular caution is always indicated when scolio- sionally observed. Atlantoaxial abnormalities are also not ses occur in children under 10 years. The most serious complication recorded before therapeutic measures are initiated is degeneration into a malignant schwannoma. We (especially of course before surgical correction) for ourselves have had the misfortune to observe four such such scolioses. Acciarri N, Paganini M, Fonda C, Gaist G, Padovani R (1992) Langer- Osteoblastoma of the spine. Spine 15: hans cell histiocytosis of the spine causing cord compression: case 1272–80 report. Akbarnia BA, Gabriel KR, Beckman E, Chalk D (1992) Prevalence of tive use of the mobile gamma camera in localizing and excising scoliosis in neurofibromatosis. Ozaki T, Liljenqvist U, Hillmann A, Halm H, Lindner N, Gosheger G, blom J (2000) Prognostic factors in chordoma of the sacrum and Winkelmann W (2002) Osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma of the mobile spine: a study of 39 patients. Ozaki T, Flege S, Liljenqvist U, Hillmann A, Delling G, Salzer- rysmal bone cyst. Cancer 71: 729–34 Kuntschik M, Jürgens H, Kotz R, Winkelmann W, Bielack S (2002) 5. Berven S, Zurakowski D, Mankin H, Gebhardt M, Springfield D, Osteosarcoma of the spine: experience of the Cooperative Osteo- Hornicek F (2002) Clinical outcome in chordoma: utility of flow sarcoma Study Group. Boriani S, Capanna R, Donati D, Levine A, Picci P, Savini R (1992) nal anomalies in congenital scoliosis. Boriani S, De Iure F, Bandiera S, Campanacci L, Biagini R, Di Fiore inger RN (1992) Osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma of the spine. M, Bandello L, Picci P, Bacchini P (2000) Chondrosarcoma of the J Spinal Disord 5: 204–11 mobile spine: report on 22 cases. Boriani S, De Iure F, Campanacci L, Gasbarrini A, Bandiera S, Biagini C, Aragon G (1993) Chordoma: results of radiation therapy in eigh- R, Bertoni F, Picci P (2001) Aneurysmal bone cyst of the mobile teen patients. Capanna R, Boriani S, Mabit C, Donati D, Savini R (1991) L’osteome treatment of sacrococcygeal chordoma. Chan M, Wong Y, Yuen M, Lam D (2002) Spinal aneurysmal bone Clinical and pathological aspects of solitary spinal neurofibroma. Clinchot DM, Colachis SC 3d (1993) The spectrum of neurofibro- rofibromatosis. J Pediatr Orthop 10: 522–6 matosis: neurologic manifestations with malignant transforma- 34. Cotterill S, Ahrens S, Paulussen M, Jürgens H, Voute P, Gadner H, bone cyst. Arch Craft A (2000) Prognostic factors in Ewing’s tumor of bone: analy- Orthop Trauma Surg 111: 318–22 sis of 975 patients from the European Intergroup Cooperative 36. Turgut M, Gurcay O (1992) Multifocal histiocytosis X of bone in Ewing’s Sarcoma Study Group. Di Caprio M, Murphy M, Camp R (2000) Aneurysmal bone cyst of 241–4 the spine with familial incidence. Durrani A, Crawford A, Chouhdry S, Saifuddin A, Morley T (2000) Modulation of spinal deformities in patients with neurofibromato- sis type 1. Freiberg AA, Loder RT, Heidelberger KP, Hensinger RN (1994) Aneurysmal bone cysts in young children.

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