By H. Arokkh. Murray State University. 2018.
Knee Flexion to shorten the leg discount 500mg mildronate free shipping, then extension just before heel contact Ankle Dorsiflexion for heel strike NEUROLOGIC GAIT DEVIATIONS The Rancho Los Amigos charting system pro- vides one of several available systematic ob- 2 generic mildronate 500mg without a prescription. During the first part of stance purchase mildronate 250 mg free shipping, con- servational methods for gait analysis order mildronate 250 mg. The knee flexes approximately 30°–40° referring to the joint angle mildronate 250 mg with mastercard, muscle on and off near the end of stance. The pelvis is displaced toward the stance probably reliable only in the hands of experi- limb. Patients should be is in mid stance provide the most im- trained, however, with the template of Figure portant sensory inputs to the spinal cord 6–3 in mind so that optimal facilitation of gait for the stance to swing transition. In the swing phase, the pelvis rotates, so that the swinging hip moves forward faster than the hip that is in stance. The pelvis tilts down on the side of the swinging hip, under the control of the After an upper motoneuron injury, myriad opposite hip abductors. Average Walking Speeds for Short Distances in Healthy Men and Women Decade 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s 70s CASUAL (meters/minute) Men 84 88 88 84 82 80 Women 84 85 84 84 78 76 MAXIMUM (meters/minute) Men 152 147 148 124 116 125 Women 148 150 127 120 106 105 Source: Adapted from Bohannon, 199764 the gait pattern. The patient with hemiplegia may lose ness, impaired activation of muscles, coactiva- heel strike and the heel-to-forefoot rocker tion of muscle groups, hypertonicity, leg length action that increases the length of a step asymmetries of more than approximately 1 and adds forward propulsion. Instead, the inch, laxity of ligaments, joint and soft tissue patient may land flat-footed or on the fore- stiffness, contractures, and pain. Therapists foot, due to poor ankle dorsiflexion and make their adjustments to deviations that oc- knee extension. Poor dorsiflexion can arise cur during the six most easily separable events from a heel cord contracture, from sus- of the gait cycle (Fig. Initial contact with heel strike: Normally, by the tibialis anterior and toe extensor work at the knee flexors is mostly eccen- muscles, and by flexion of the knee, which tric during weight acceptance in stance. The tib- vent the vertical force at load acceptance ialis anterior contracts eccentrically the from rapidly building up at impact. The foot to the ground to touch, rather than to initial rocker action at the ankle and foot Table 6–3. Measurement Units to Quickly Convert the Range of Common Walking Speeds cm/second meters/minute feet/second km/hour mph 5 3 0. Stance Phase: Observational Analysis of Common Hemiparetic Gait Deviations Deviations Etiology Consequences Hip adduction Increased adductor activity Narrow base of support Inadequate strength of abductors Loss of balance Contralateral pelvic Weakness or inadequate control of hip Decreased stance stability drop abductors Inadequate hip Inadequate quadriceps Increased energy demand extension Hip flexion contracture Decreased forward progression Increased activity of hip flexors and velocity Excessive knee flexion posture Inadequate knee Inadequate quadriceps strength/control Increased energy demand extension Knee flexion contracture Decreased stance time Increased hamstring or gastrocnemius Decreased forward progression activity and velocity Inadequate hip extension or excessive dorsiflexion Knee extensor thrust Inadequate quadriceps control Loss of loading response at knee Increased quadriceps or plantarflexion Decreased forward progression activity and velocity Ankle instability Joint pain Plantar flexion contracture Excessive plantar flexion Increased plantar flexion activity Decreased forward progression Inadequate plantar flexion strength/ and velocity control Compensatory postures Plantar flexion contracture Increased energy demand Shortened stance time Excessive dorsiflexion Accommodation for knee flexion Stance instability contracture Decreased stance time Plantar flexion paresis Compensatory hip and knee flexion requiring increased energy Decreased forward progression/velocity No heel off Inadequate plantar flexion strength/ Decreased pre-swing knee flexion control Decreased forward progression/ Restricted ankle or metatarsal motion velocity Excess varus Increased invertor muscle activity Unstable base of support Decreased forward progression/ velocity Clawed toes Increased toe flexor muscle activity or Pain from skin pressure and weak intrinsic foot muscles weight bearing on toes Exaggerated compensation for poor Decreased forward progression/ balance velocity Toe flexion contracture also reduces this impact. In the hemi- and becomes an unstable weight-bearing plegic patient who immediately loads the surface. The quadriceps may give way so forefoot, the tibia is forced back and the the knee buckles or the knee may hyper- knee is thrust into extension, thereby im- extend and snap back. Midstance: At this point, the leg in swing may rotate in varus onto its lateral aspect passes the stance leg and the feet come 256 Common Practices Across Disorders Table 6–5. Swing Phase: Observational Analysis of Common Hemiparetic Gait Deviations Deviations Etiology Consequences Impaired hip flexion Increased extensor activity at knee Decreased forward progression and and ankle velocity Inadequate control of hip flexors Shortened step length Increased energy demand Impaired knee flexion Inadequate pre-swing knee flexion Toe drag at initial swing Increased knee extensor activity Contracture Hamstring paresis Inadequate knee Knee flexion contracture Shortened step length extension at end of Flexor synergy or withdrawal Decreased forward progression and swing prevents knee extension during velocity hip flexion Increased knee flexor activity Hip adduction Increased adductor activity Swing limb abuts stance limb or unsafely Excessive flexor or extensor narrows base of support synergy Decreased forward progression Excessive plantar Inadequate dorsiflexion strength Toe drag flexion at mid to Contracture Initial contact with foot flat or toes first end swing Increased plantar flexor activity or Loss of loading response at ankle extensor synergy next to each other. Terminal stance or heel off: This phase oc- ward velocity as it progresses over the curs just before heel contact by the op- stance leg. The trunk loses vertical height point, creating the potential energy of and the iliopsoas muscle contracts eccen- height, and is displaced to a maximum trically to resist the hip as the leg extends toward the stance leg. The knee peaks in its ex- The quadriceps muscles stop contracting tension and begins to flex and the gas- and the soleus contracts to slow the for- trocnemius joins the soleus contraction to ward motion of the tibia. In the patient with action force moves forward along the foot hemiplegia, contractures or spastic claw- as the ankle rotates from approximately ing of the toes may prevent weight from 15° of plantarflexion to 10° of dorsiflex- advancing to the forefoot. The gluteus muscles contract on the ing on flexed toes is also painful and in- opposite side to maintain pelvic align- creases hypertonicity. In the hemiplegic patient, the in- posite pelvis may drop from impaired hip ability to dorsiflex the ankle about 5° may abductor muscle activity. This deviation slows momentum swing begins at the end of the second and causes a shorter step by the opposite double-limb support phase. If the soleus contraction is inade- rectus femoris, and hip adductor muscles quate, the quadriceps muscles continue flex the hip. The rectus femoris also con- to fire to compensate for the dorsiflexed trols knee flexion by an eccentric con- ankle.
Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) injection at 2 and 4 months of age mildronate 250mg with mastercard, at 6 to 18 months cheap 500 mg mildronate fast delivery, and at 4 to 6 years of age cheap mildronate 250mg otc. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is no longer recom- mended for use in the United States 250 mg mildronate amex. These vaccines are given later than DTaP and IPV because sufﬁcient antibodies may not be produced Jim and Sue bring in their newborn for a well-child examination mildronate 250mg sale. Pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (Prevnar) to further explain that they read an article outlining several cases that involved serious complications (deaths and lifelong disabil- all children at 2 to 23 months of age and pneumococcal ities) after infant immunizations. Varicella at 12 to 18 months and again at approximately • How you feel as a health care provider when people select not 12 years of age. For children with chronic illnesses such as asthma, heart • How you can help these parents make an informed decision. CHAPTER 43 IMMUNIZING AGENTS 653 for healthy older adults and those with chronic respiratory, immune globulin or varicella-zoster immune globulin may be cardiovascular, and other diseases. Compared to healthy, immunocompetent individuals, the an- tibody response to immunization is usually adequate but re- Use in Cancer duced in immunosuppressed persons. Also, with hepatitis For patients with active malignant disease, live vaccines B vaccine, antibody concentrations should be measured and should not be given. Although killed vaccines and toxoids booster doses given if antibody concentrations fall. When possible, patients should receive (MMR, varicella, yellow fever) should generally not be given needed immunizations 2 weeks before or 3 months after im- to people with HIV infection, other immune diseases, or im- munosuppressive radiation or chemotherapy treatments. In addition, patients who have not received HIV infection should receive inactivated vaccines. If an im- chemotherapy for 3 to 4 weeks may have an adequate anti- munosuppressed person is exposed to measles or varicella, body response to influenza vaccine. NURSING Immunizing Agents ACTIONS NURSING ACTIONS RATIONALE/EXPLANATION 1. Read the package insert, and check the expiration date on Concentration, dosage, and administration of biologic products all biologic products (eg, vaccines, toxoids, and human im- often vary with the products. Also, use reconstituted prod- ucts within designated time limits because they are usually stable for only a few hours. The vastus lateralis is the largest skeletal muscle mass in the infant and the preferred site for all intramuscular (IM) injections. With measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine, use only The reconstituted preparation is stable for approximately 8 h. If not the diluent provided by the manufacturer, and administer the used within 8 h, discard the solution. Give hepatitis B vaccine IM in the anterolateral thigh of in- Higher blood levels of protective antibodies are produced when the fants and young children and in the deltoid of older children vaccine is given in the thigh or deltoid than when it is given in the and adults. Although the IM route is preferred, the drug can be buttocks, probably because of injection into fatty tissue rather than given SC in people at high risk of bleeding from IM injections gluteal muscles. Give IM human immune serum globulin with an 18- to To promote absorption and minimize tissue irritation and other ad- 20-gauge needle, preferably in gluteal muscles. If the dose is verse reactions 5 mL or more, divide it and inject it into two or more IM sites. Aspirate carefully before IM or SC injection of any immu- To avoid inadvertent IV administration and greatly increased risks nizing agent. Have aqueous epinephrine 1:1000 readily available before For immediate treatment of allergic reactions administering any vaccine. After administration of an immunizing agent in a clinic or To observe for allergic reactions, which usually occur within 30 min ofﬁce setting, have the client stay in the area for at least 30 min. Decreased incidence and severity of symptoms when given to modify disease processes 3. Observe for adverse effects Most adverse effects are mild and transient. The risk of serious adverse effects from immunization is usually much smaller than the risk of the disease immunized against. Adverse effects may be caused by the immunizing agent or by foreign protein incorporated with the immunizing agent (eg, egg protein in viral vaccines grown in chick embryos). General reactions (1) Pain, tenderness, redness at injection sites Local tissue irritation may occur with injected immunizing agents. It is a edema, urticaria, angioneurotic edema, severe respiratory medical emergency that requires immediate treatment with SC epi- distress) nephrine (0. Anaphy- laxis is most likely to occur within 30 min after immunizing agents are injected.
Benzthiazide (Exna) PO 50–200 mg daily for several days initially order 500mg mildronate with visa, de- PO 1–4 mg/kg/d initially mildronate 500 mg on line, in 3 divided doses proven mildronate 250 mg. For maintenance discount 500mg mildronate otc, dosage is For maintenance safe mildronate 500 mg, dosage is reduced to the gradually reduced to the minimal effective amount. Chlorothiazide (Diuril) PO 500–1000 mg 1 or 2 times daily PO 22 mg/kg/d in 2 divided doses IV 500 mg twice daily Infants <6 mo, up to 33 mg/kg/d in 2 divided doses IV not recommended Chlorthalidone (Hygroton) PO 25–100 mg daily PO 3 mg/kg 3 times weekly, adjusted according to response Hydrochlorothiazide PO 25–100 mg 1 or 2 times daily PO 2 mg/kg/d in two divided doses (HydroDIURIL, Esidrix, Oretic) Elderly, 12. May be repeated Not recommended for children <18 y q4–6h to a maximal dose of 10 mg, if necessary. Giving on alternate days or for 3–4 d with rest periods of 1–2 d is recommended for long-term control of edema. Ethacrynic acid (Edecrin) Edema, PO 50–100 mg daily, increased or decreased PO 25 mg daily according to severity of condition and response, maximal daily dose, 400 mg Rapid mobilization of edema, IV 50 mg or No recommended parenteral dose in children 0. If an PO 2 mg/kg 1 or 2 times daily initially, gradually adequate diuretic response is not obtained, dosage increased by increments of 1–2 mg/kg per may be gradually increased by 20- to 40-mg incre- dose if necessary at intervals of 6–8 h. For maintenance, Maximal daily dose, 6 mg/kg dosage range and frequency of administration vary IV 1 mg/kg initially. Hypertension, PO 40 mg twice daily, gradually Maximal dose, 6 mg/kg increased if necessary Rapid mobilization of edema, IV 20–40 mg initially, injected slowly. With acute pulmonary edema, initial dose is usu- ally 40 mg, which may be repeated in 60–90 min. Maximum dose, 1–2 g/24 h Hypertensive crisis, IV 40–80 mg injected over 1–2 min. Torsemide (Demadex) PO, IV 5–20 mg once daily (continued) 820 SECTION 9 DRUGS AFFECTING THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Drugs at a Glance: Diuretic Agents (continued) Routes and Dosage Ranges Generic/Trade Name Adults Children Potassium-Sparing Diuretics Amiloride (Midamor) PO 5–20 mg daily Dosage not established Spironolactone (Aldactone) PO 25–200 mg daily PO 3. Consequently, sub- processes normally maintain the ﬂuid volume, electrolyte con- centration, and pH of body ﬂuids within a relatively narrow range. Efferent Glomerulus Distal A minimum daily urine output of approximately 400 mL is re- arteriole tubule quired to remove normal amounts of metabolic end products. Glomerular Filtration Arterial blood enters the glomerulus by the afferent arteriole Afferent at the relatively high pressure of approximately 70 mm Hg. This ﬂuid, called glomerular ﬁltrate, contains the Proximal same components as blood except for blood cells, fats, and tubule proteins that are too large to be ﬁltered. The glomerular ﬁltration rate (GFR) is about 180 L/day, or 125 mL/minute. Most of this ﬂuid is reabsorbed as the glomeru- lar ﬁltrate travels through the tubules. Because ﬁltration is a nonselective process, Collecting the reabsorption and secretion processes determine the com- tubule position of the urine. Once formed, urine ﬂows into collecting tubules, which carry it to the renal pelvis, then through the ureters, bladder, and urethra for elimination from the body. Descending Blood that does not become part of the glomerular fil- limb of loop trate leaves the glomerulus through the efferent arteriole. Peritubular capillaries Tubular Reabsorption Loop of Henle The term reabsorption, in relation to renal function, indicates Figure 56–1 The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. Increased capillary permeability occurs as part of the occurs in the proximal tubule. Thus, edema may occur acids are reabsorbed; about 80% of water, sodium, potas- with burns and trauma or allergic and inﬂammatory sium, chloride, and most other substances is reabsorbed. In the descending limb of the loop of Henle, water from a sequence of events in which increased is reabsorbed; in the ascending limb, sodium is reabsorbed. This is the primary mechanism for marily by the exchange of sodium ions for potassium ions edema formation in heart failure, pulmonary edema, secreted by epithelial cells of tubular walls. The remaining water and solutes are now appropri- with decreased synthesis of plasma proteins (caused ately called urine. This conserves water important in keeping fluids within the blood- needed by the body and produces more concentrated urine. When plasma proteins are lacking, fluid Aldosterone, a hormone from the adrenal cortex, promotes seeps through the capillaries and accumulates in sodium–potassium exchange mainly in the distal tubule and tissues. If severe, edema Tubular Secretion may distort body features, impair movement, and inter- fere with activities of daily living. Specific manifestations of edema are determined by movement of substances from blood in the peritubular cap- its location and extent.
Heroin ingestion in- Despite the general principle that drug use should be avoided creases the risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension order 500 mg mildronate overnight delivery, third when possible buy cheap mildronate 250mg, pregnant women may require drug therapy trimester bleeding discount 250 mg mildronate with mastercard, complications of labor and delivery cheap 250mg mildronate otc, and for various illnesses purchase mildronate 500 mg overnight delivery, increased nutritional needs, pregnancy- postpartum morbidity. FETAL THERAPEUTICS Although the major concern about drugs ingested during Herbal and Dietary Supplements pregnancy is adverse effects on the fetus, a few drugs are given to the mother for their therapeutic effects on the fetus. Pregnancy increases nutritional needs and vitamin and min- These include digoxin for fetal tachycardia or heart failure, eral supplements are commonly used. Folic acid supplemen- levothyroxine for hypothyroidism, penicillin for exposure to tation is especially important, to prevent neural tube birth maternal syphilis, and prenatal corticosteroids to promote defects (eg, spina biﬁda). Such defects occur early in preg- surfactant production to improve lung function and decrease nancy, often before the woman realizes she is pregnant. In addition, pregnancy increases folic Antacids may be used if necessary. Because little systemic acid requirements by 5- to 10-fold and deficiencies are com- absorption occurs, the drugs are unlikely to harm the fetus if mon. A supplement is usually needed to supply adequate used in recommended doses. For deficiency states, 1 mg or more daily may be cralfate may also be used. Herbal supplements are not recommended during preg- Gestational Diabetes nancy. Ginger has been used to relieve nausea and vomit- ing during pregnancy, with a few studies supporting its use. Overall, it has not been proven effective, but is probably This is called gestational diabetes. Most women without risk factors, or Pregnancy-Associated Symptoms whose initial test was normal, should be tested between 24 and and Their Management 28 weeks of gestation. For women with gestational diabetes, initial management Anemias includes nutrition and exercise interventions, calorie restric- tion for obese women, and daily self-monitoring of blood glu- Three types of anemia are common during pregnancy. If these interventions are ineffective, recombinant physiologic anemia, which results from expanded blood vol- human insulin is needed to keep blood sugar levels as nearly ume. A second is iron-deﬁciency anemia, which is often re- normal as possible. Oral antidiabetic drugs are generally con- lated to long-term nutritional deﬁciencies. Iron supplements traindicated, although acarbose, metformin, and miglitol seem are usually given for prophylaxis (eg, ferrous sulfate 300 mg to cause minimal fetal risk. Iron prepara- These women may revert to a nondiabetic state when tions should be given with food to decrease gastric irritation. A third type is megaloblas- ment of overt diabetes within 5 to 10 years. Nausea and Vomiting Constipation Nausea and vomiting often occur, especially during early preg- Constipation often occurs during pregnancy, probably from nancy. Dietary management (eg, eating a few crackers when decreased peristalsis. Preferred treatment, if effective, is to awakening and waiting a few minutes before arising) and increase exercise and intake of ﬂuids and high-ﬁber foods. Meclizine, 25 to 50 mg daily, and dimenhydrinate, (eg, docusate) or an occasional saline laxative (eg, milk of 50 mg every 3 to 4 hours, are thought to have low teratogenic magnesia) may also be used. If used, rec- because it interferes with absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Castor oil should be avoided because it can cause Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension uterine contractions. Strong laxatives or any laxative used in excess may initiate uterine contractions and labor. Pregnancy-induced hypertension includes preeclampsia and eclampsia, conditions that endanger the lives of mother and fetus. Preeclampsia is most likely to occur during the last Gastroesophageal Reﬂux Disease 10 weeks of pregnancy, during labor, or within the first Gastroesophageal reﬂux disease (GERD), of which heartburn 48 hours after delivery. It is manifested by edema, hypertension, (pyrosis) is the main symptom, often occurs in the later and proteinuria. It develops when increased abdominal or labetalol for blood pressure control and magnesium sulfate pressure and a relaxed esophageal sphincter allow gastric for prevention or treatment of seizures. Eclampsia, charac- acid to splash into the esophagus and cause irritation, dis- terized by severe symptoms and convulsions, occurs if pre- comfort, and esophagitis.
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