By A. Kaelin. Colorado School of Mines.
The thoracic wall I 7 2 The thoracic wall II Vein Artery Intercostal Nerve External Internal Intercostal muscles Innermost Posterior ramus Posterior intercostal artery Fig 3.03 mg yasmin overnight delivery. These include the: • Sensory branches from the pleura (upper nerves) and peritoneum • External intercostal: this muscle ﬁlls the intercostal space from the (lower nerves) order yasmin 3.03 mg mastercard. The ﬁbres run down- • The 1st intercostal nerve is joined to the brachial plexus and has no wards and forwards from rib above to rib below generic yasmin 3.03mg without a prescription. The 2nd intercostal the posterior intercostal membrane which reaches as far back as the nerve consequently supplies the skin of the armpit and medial side of vertebral bodies generic 3.03 mg yasmin with amex. The ﬁbres of these muscles span more than one inter- The diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities order yasmin 3.03 mg amex. It lies between the The muscular part has three component origins: internal intercostal and innermost intercostal muscle layers. The intercostal structures course under cover of the subcostal The right crus arises from the front of the L1–3 vertebral bodies and groove. Pleural aspiration should be performed close to the upper bor- intervening discs. Some ﬁbres from the right crus pass around the lower der of a rib to minimize the risk of injury. Vascular supply and venous drainage of the chest wall The medial arcuate ligament is made up of thickened fascia which The intercostal spaces receive their arterial supply from the anterior overlies psoas major and is attached medially to the body of L1 and lat- and posterior intercostal arteries. The lateral arcuate ligament is • The anterior intercostal arteries are branches of the internal thoracic made up of fascia which overlies quadratus lumborum from the trans- artery and its terminal branch the musculophrenic artery. The lowest verse process of L1 medially to the 12th rib laterally. The median arcuate ligament is a ﬁbrous arch which connects left • The ﬁrst 2–3 posterior intercostal arteries arise from the superior and right crura. The lower nine posterior inter- •Asternal part: consists of two small slips arising from the deep sur- costal arteries are branches of the thoracic aorta. Openings in the diaphragm The anterior intercostal veins drain anteriorly into the internal thor- Structures traverse the diaphragm at different levels to pass from acic and musculophrenic veins. The posterior intercostal veins drain thoracic to abdominal cavities and vice versa. These levels are as into the azygos and hemiazygos systems (see Fig. Lymph drainage from the: • T10, the oesophageal opening: transmits the oesophagus, vagi and • Anterior chest wall: is to the anterior axillary nodes. The left phrenic nerve passes into the diaphragm as a solitary structure. Only the upper six intercostal nerves run in their inter- • Motor supply: the entire motor supply arises from the phrenic nerves costal spaces, the remainder gaining access to the anterior abdominal (C3,4,5). Diaphragmatic contraction is the mainstay of inspiration. The sensory supply from the • Cutaneous anterior and lateral branches. The thoracic wall II 9 3 The mediastinum Icthe contents of the mediastinum Superior mediastinum Great vessels Trachea Oesophagus Thymus, etc. Middle mediastinum Heart and roots of great vessels Anterior mediastinum Pericardium Thymus Posterior mediastinum Oesophagus Descending thoracic aorta Thoracic duct Fig. The superior mediastinum communicates with the root of the neck The dual drainage of the lower third forms a site of portal-systemic through the ‘thoracic inlet’. The latter opening is bounded anteriorly by anastomosis. In advanced liver cirrhosis, portal pressure rises result- the manubrium, posteriorly by T1 vertebra and laterally by the 1st rib. These veins become distended and fragile (oesophageal varices). They are predisposed to rupture, causing potentially life-threatening • Middle mediastinum: consists of the pericardium and heart. The lower oesophagus also drains into the nodes The contents of the mediastinum (Figs 3. The oesophagus Carcinoma of the oesophagus carries an extremely poor prognosis.
Among these agents galantamine also acts as an allosteric nicotinic receptor modulator cheap yasmin 3.03 mg with mastercard, which has been shown to 8 stimulate the presynaptic release of acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters in laboratory preparations cheap yasmin 3.03 mg without a prescription. Because of their more favorable therapeutic profiles order yasmin 3.03 mg with amex, greater convenience order yasmin 3.03 mg amex, and absence of liver toxicity 3.03mg yasmin otc, the second-generation ChEI agents (i. Neuropharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties of the currently available ChEIs are summarized in Table 1. More recent evidence implicates the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate as playing a role in the 9-11 pathophysiology of AD. Currently, the only available drug targeting cognitive symptoms via a putative glutamatergic mechanism is memantine hydrochloride (memantine). Memantine has been widely used in Germany for more than two decades to treat a variety of conditions, including dementia, PD, neurogenic 12, 13 bladder, and neuropathic pain. Memantine has been promoted as a treatment for dementia in Germany since 1989; in 2002 the European Union approved its use in AD. Memantine is a low-affinity noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist that blocks pathologic neural toxicity associated with prolonged glutamate release without interfering with the normal physiologic actions of glutamate required 14, 15 for learning and memory functions. Neuropharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties of memantine are summarized in Table 1. Other more poorly documented pharmacologic approaches include drugs like nicotine, selegiline, vitamin E, ginkgo biloba, piracetam, hormone replacement therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs, statins, and folic 14, 16 acid; these will not be considered in this review. Current drug treatments for Alzheimer’s disease Tacrine Donepezil Rivastigmine Galantamine Memantine Agent (Cognex ) (Aricept ) (Exelon ) (Razadyne (Namenda™) Razadyne ER ) Manufacturer/ West-Ward Eisai Novartis Janssen Merz Distributor Horizon Pfizer Shire Forest Mechanism(s) AChEI, BuChEI AChEI AChEI, BuChEI AChEI, NRM NMDA antagonist d Dose Forms 10, 20, 30, 40 5, 10 1. Scope and key questions The purpose of this review is to help policy makers and clinicians make informed choices about the use of the four ChEIs and memantine in the treatment of AD. We compare the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety (adverse events) of donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, tacrine, and memantine in patients with mild to severe AD. Although we will emphasize comparative head-to-head studies, the few published ones do not allow for a comprehensive evaluation. Accordingly, we will also include supplementary data from individual placebo-controlled trials and observational studies. The participating organizations of the Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) are responsible for ensuring that the scope of the review reflects the populations, drugs, and outcome measures of interest to their constituencies. The Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center initially prepared preliminary key questions identifying the populations, interventions, and outcomes of interest, and we based the eligibility criteria for studies on these preliminary questions. Representatives of organizations participating in the DERP, in conjunction with experts in the fields of health policy, neurology, pharmacotherapy, and research methods reviewed, revised, and approved the questions and outcome measures. The participating organizations approved the following key questions: 1. How do donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, tacrine, and memantine or combinations of these drugs (i. How do donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, tacrine, and memantine (or combinations of these drugs) compare in their time to effect and in the time required to assess the clinical response? What are the comparative incidence and severity of complications of donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, tacrine, and memantine (or combinations of these drugs)? Does efficacy, effectiveness, or adverse events of donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, tacrine, or memantine (or combinations of these drugs) differ in subgroups of patients with (1) different demographic profiles (age, race, or gender), (2) Parkinsonian features or vascular dementia, or (3) use of other commonly prescribed drugs? We distinguish between efficacy (explanatory) studies and effectiveness (pragmatic) studies; studies conducted in primary care or office- based settings that use less stringent eligibility criteria (i. Studies conducted in more highly selected populations over shorter periods of time are characterized as efficacy studies. We summarize the results of efficacy and effectiveness studies separately as the results of effectiveness studies are more generalizable than results from highly selected populations (i. For assessing efficacy and effectiveness, our review includes methodologically valid comparative evidence from controlled clinical trials and fair- or good-quality systematic reviews. For evaluating safety we include controlled clinical trials, systematic reviews, and observational studies. A summary of outcome measures and study eligibility criteria can be found in Table 2; a more complete description of commonly used scales and outcome measures can be found in Appendix B. The second key question specifically addresses the time to achieve statistical and clinical differences between available drugs.
Adverse event: A harmful or undesirable outcome that occurs during or after the use of a drug or intervention but is not necessarily caused by it cheap yasmin 3.03mg with visa. Adverse effect: An adverse event for which the causal relation between the intervention and the event is at least a reasonable possibility yasmin 3.03 mg with visa. Active-control trial: A trial comparing a drug in a particular class or group with a drug outside of that class or group purchase 3.03 mg yasmin visa. Allocation concealment: The process by which the person determining randomization is blinded to a study participant’s group allocation order yasmin 3.03 mg free shipping. Applicability: see External Validity Before-after study: A type nonrandomized study where data are collected before and after patients receive an intervention generic yasmin 3.03mg without prescription. Before-after studies can have a single arm or can include a control group. Bias: A systematic error or deviation in results or inferences from the truth. Several types of bias can appear in published trials, including selection bias, performance bias, detection bias, and reporting bias. Bioequivalence: Drug products that contain the same compound in the same amount that meet current official standards, that, when administered to the same person in the same dosage regimen result in equivalent concentrations of drug in blood and tissue. Black box warning: A type of warning that appears on the package insert for prescription drugs that may cause serious adverse effects. It is so named for the black border that usually surrounds the text of the warning. A black box warning means that medical studies indicate that the drug carries a significant risk of serious or even life-threatening adverse effects. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) can require a pharmaceutical company to place a black box warning on the labeling of a prescription drug, or in literature describing it. Blinding: A way of making sure that the people involved in a research study — participants, clinicians, or researchers —do not know which participants are assigned to each study group. Blinding usually is used in research studies that compare two or more types of treatment for an illness. Newer antiplatelet agents 64 of 98 Final Update 2 Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project Case series: A study reporting observations on a series of patients receiving the same intervention with no control group. Case study: A study reporting observations on a single patient. Case-control study: A study that compares people with a specific disease or outcome of interest (cases) to people from the same population without that disease or outcome (controls). Clinical diversity: Differences between studies in key characteristics of the participants, interventions or outcome measures. Clinically significant: A result that is large enough to affect a patient’s disease state in a manner that is noticeable to the patient and/or a caregiver. Cohort study: An observational study in which a defined group of people (the cohort) is followed over time and compared with a group of people who were exposed or not exposed to a particular intervention or other factor of interest. A prospective cohort study assembles participants and follows them into the future. A retrospective cohort study identifies subjects from past records and follows them from the time of those records to the present. Combination Therapy: The use of two or more therapies and especially drugs to treat a disease or condition. Confidence interval: The range of values calculated from the data such that there is a level of confidence, or certainty, that it contains the true value. The 95% confidence interval is generally used in Drug Effectiveness Review Project reports. If the report were hypothetically repeated on a collection of 100 random samples of studies, the resulting 95% confidence intervals would include the true population value 95% of the time. Confounder: A factor that is associated with both an intervention and an outcome of interest. Controlled clinical trial: A clinical trial that includes a control group but no or inadequate methods of randomization. Control group: In a research study, the group of people who do not receive the treatment being tested. The control group might receive a placebo, a different treatment for the disease, or no treatment at all.
Rates of 127 129 130 51 somnolence on diazepam in four trials generic 3.03 mg yasmin with amex, for example buy 3.03 mg yasmin with amex, were 13% 3.03mg yasmin amex, 30% buy cheap yasmin 3.03mg on-line, 50% buy 3.03 mg yasmin fast delivery, and 81%, while respective rates for dizziness were 12%, 8%, 50%, and 44%, despite similar doses of diazepam. Because of the wide disparity in adverse event rates from diazepam, reliable conclusions about the comparative adverse event rates of cyclobenzaprine and tizanidine could not be drawn from these trials. In all head-to-head trials, withdrawals due to adverse events were roughly equal or no withdrawals due to adverse events were reported. Results of placebo-controlled trials No placebo-controlled trial was rated good quality for adverse event assessment. No deaths thought related to medication were reported. Adverse events were not reported consistently in these trials, and doses of medications and titration methods differed markedly between studies. For example, for baclofen, doses ranged from 5 mg tid up to 80 mg daily, with various methods for titrating doses. Wide and overlapping ranges for all commonly reported adverse events (somnolence, dizziness, dry mouth, withdrawals due to adverse events) were seen for carisoprodol, cyclobenzaprine, and tizanidine (Table 9). There was extremely limited adverse events data for orphenadrine (2 154, 156 23, 155 trials reported almost no adverse events and two did not report adverse event data), 43, 44, 56, 153 157 metaxalone (almost no adverse event data from 5 trials ) baclofen (only 1 trial ), 42, 57 158, 159 methocarbamol (only 2 placebo-controlled trials ) or dantrolene (neither of 2 trials reported adverse events). There was no pattern from placebo-controlled trials to suggest that any one muscle relaxant was superior to others for adverse events. Two trials evaluated the efficacy of different doses of cyclobenzaprine versus 47 placebo. Both were fair quality for adverse event assessment (adverse events not pre- specified or defined, adverse events only assessed by self-report, no statistical analysis of potential confounders). In both trials, adverse event rates were higher with increasing doses of cyclobenzaprine, compared to placebo (Table 9 and Evidence Table 6). One trial compared cyclobenzaprine 10 mg po tid and 5 mg po tid with placebo and found that withdrawal rates were higher for 10 mg po tid (13. Withdrawal rates, however, were higher in the cyclobenzaprine 2. Skeletal Muscle Relaxants Page 26 of 237 Final Report Update 2 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Results of observational studies 21 We identified one study evaluating abuse risk in patients taking carisoprodol. Carisoprodol is suspected of having a higher potential for abuse because one of its metabolites is meprobamate, a federally controlled substance. This study enrolled 40 patients taking carisoprodol for more than 3 months. It assessed the potential for abuse using an unvalidated six-item questionnaire and found that 20% of patients with no history of substance abuse history and 65% with a history of substance abuse responded yes to one or more questions, which the authors suggested indicated a tendency towards possible abuse. We identified no other observational studies assessing the rates of abuse or addiction from carisoprodol or other skeletal muscle relaxants in patients with musculoskeletal conditions. Most reports of abuse 180 and addiction are from case reports. Almost all case reports of abuse, addiction, or overdose 21, 180-189 involving skeletal muscle relaxants are in patients taking carisoprodol, though we also 190, 191 found two case reports of orphenadrine abuse. In an autopsy series from Jefferson County, Alabama, carisoprodol was present in 24 of 8162 cases, though it was never the sole 192 drug detected at autopsy or the sole cause of death. There are also case reports of abuse of 193 194 carisoprodol in combination with oxycodone, tramadol, and alcohol, benzodiazepines, or 195 cocaine. A French report from 1997 noted that meprobamate was the most frequently cited 196 drug in fatal pharmaceutical overdoses (19 cases, or 15. We identified one large observational study evaluating safety of cyclobenzaprine in 197 6311 patients. This study enrolled about 2000 physicians and asked each to report any adverse events in five patients with musculoskeletal conditions. It was rated fair-quality for adverse event assessment. Rates of somnolence (16%), dry mouth (7%), dizziness (3%), and other adverse events were about 50% lower than in clinical trials and indicate that these data might not be as reliable as available clinical trial data for estimating true adverse events rates.
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