By H. Fadi. State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry. 2018.
The use of a placebo in such drug trials as well as other interventional trials has an effect on outcomes in part related to informed consent and subjects being aware of the possibilities buy cheap himcolin 30gm online. In routine clinical practice when patients are given a known drug order himcolin 30gm without a prescription, the effectiveness of the drug is a combination of a non-specific placebo effect and the biologically active effect discount 30 gm himcolin overnight delivery. In double-blind placebo-controlled trials the effect of the drug is thought to be just the direct biological effect himcolin 30 gm on-line. However himcolin 30 gm sale, since the placebo effect is not simply additive to the biological effect and the subject is aware that they are in a Complementary therapies in neurology 256 doubleblind trial, conclusions from double-blind placebo-controlled trials are not 1,79 straightforward. In a double-blind trial, informed consent may alter the effectiveness of the placebo compared with the active agent in comparison to a situation where agents 80 are administered without patients being given information concerning the study. Doubleblind administration of decaffeinated coffee produced different effects on alertness and blood pressure than deceptive administration of decaffeinated coffee when 81 subjects were told they were receiving regular caffeinated coffee. There was a systematic review of trials in which NSAIDs were used in comparison with another active drug or in comparison to a placebo for treatment of pain in osteo- or rheumatoid 82 arthritis. In the trials in which the NSAID was being compared to a placebo, there was a significantly greater dropout rate related to ineffectiveness compared to the same NSAID being tested in an active drug comparison. On the other hand, patient dropouts were greater for adverse events in the trials in which the NSAID was compared to another drug than in placebo-controlled trials. Thus, given the same active NSAID, subjects had different experiences based solely on whether the other arm of the trial was a placebo arm or an active drug arm, despite the fact that the patient was not in that other arm but simply knew about it. In a smaller study where pain medications were given in a single clinical setting, there was a significantly greater benefit of the same NSAID when the drug was given as part of an active treatment-controlled study compared with a placebo- 83 controlled study. There are some data to suggest that placebo effects are greater for psychological and 27 selfrated measures than other objective measures of disease activity. A study that evaluated patients in placebo arms of rheumatoid arthritis drug trials found essentially no change over 6 months on the erythrocyte sedimentation rate but there was a significant 84 improvement in articular index and morning stiffness. While placebo responses may be generally greater for self-ratings, one study evaluating pain following bilateral third molar extraction found decreases in swelling and C-reactive protein following placebo ultrasound treatment (machine intensity set to zero) similar to the decreases found in self- 85 reports of pain. Another study observed elevation of liver enzymes in multiple dose trials during placebo treatment and attempted to determine predictors for those 86 elevations. Objective changes in pulmonary function in asthmatic adults have been 87,88 observed following expectation of receiving an inhaled bronchoconstrictor and these changes were reversed with expectation of receiving an inhaled beneficial drug. The placebo effect has sometimes been considered as unfortunate noise while performing and analyzing data from randomized double-blind trials (see Kaptchuk for 1 further discussion ). The response rate in placebo arms of 117 ulcer studies has varied from 0 to 100%, much more variable than the cimetidine or ranitidine response rates in 89 the same systematic review. In addition, there is often a significant correlation between 89 drug and placebo healing rates across clinical trials, although this has not been 90,91 completely consistent. Some clinical trials in neurology have even begun excluding subjects if they demonstrate improvement in outcome measures during a placebo wash-in 92 period. However, there are many reasons for it to be beneficial to understand the placebo effect better, rather than simply ignoring it and excluding placebo responders from clinical trials. It would be beneficial to be able to define individual characteristics that correlate with the placebo effect; thus treatment arms in a randomized trial could be Placebo effect: clinical perspectives and potential mechanisms 257 better matched, improving the power of the study to determine the active treatment effect. Also, excluding subjects who have a greater placebo response may limit the possibility of seeing a therapeutic response, since these same subjects may show greater treatment effects as well. Expectation plays a major role in subjective and behavioral effects of CNS-active drugs such as alcohol, amphetamine and related stimulants, caffeine and nicotine. In the simplest balanced placebo design, subjects are assigned to one of four groups: subjects are either given active drug or placebo and either told they are getting active drug or told they are getting placebo. While the balanced placebo design partially evaluates the differential effects of expectancy and direct pharmacology, it does not get directly at the placebo effect, in part because the placebo effect is not simply additive to 96 the active or specific effect. Also, when the drug effect is great enough, individuals become aware that they have been deceived if they have been told they received placebo 97 but actually received a CNS-active drug. Even with some weaknesses, the balanced placebo and other experimental designs can be used, at last partially to study the expectancy effects. Many psychopharmacology studies still do not address the issue of placebo or expectancy effect directly, and simply use the placebo administration as a control condition. Time course It has been observed that a clinical response from a placebo may be less sustainable than 98 a response from an active agent. In one study of 55 patients with primary dysmenorrhea who had previously shown a response to placebo, subjects randomized to receive placebo had less sustained improvement than those randomized to receive naproxen or pirprofen. Those on placebo had a good response to the first cycle, the same as the active agents, but the beneficial response was not observed in later cycles, with the active agents clearly 99 producing more benefit than the placebo for the next three cycles.
For instance generic himcolin 30 gm, a Benefits strong (yang) attack is taught to be met by a yin quality 30gm himcolin, or yielding cheap himcolin 30 gm otc, response discount 30 gm himcolin visa. Martial arts cultivate an awareness Martial arts teach self-defense buy himcolin 30 gm on line, and can improve and use of yin or passive qualities, which are ignored by confidence and self-esteem. Another major tial arts can improve balance, strength, stamina, flexibili- yin/yang concept used in martial arts is that the more one ty, and posture. They also enhance weight loss and im- becomes familiar with violence, the more one learns to prove muscle tone. Some martial arts, such as aikido, teach stress management, improve concentration, and teach peace as their ultimate lesson. Although there are hundreds of different martial Some teachers claim that martial arts can be used as spir- arts, many of them have more similarities than differ- itual practices, bringing balance, peace, and wisdom to ences. Martial arts are generally classified as soft or hard, inter- Description nal or external, yin or yang, but they all need to embrace Basic concepts of martial arts these complementary aspects. Hard arts Many martial arts utilize basic concepts of traditional such as karate focus on developing muscular power and Chinese philosophy. Qi is the fundamental life energy of speed, and the mastery of breaking and throwing tech- the universe. In the body, qi is the invisible vital force that niques delivered with devastating impact. All martial arts emphasize is now the general term for an entire group of Japanese breathing techniques. Karate emphasizes offensive and defensive cises are designed to improve the flow of qi in the body, moves, and avoids grappling and wrestling. There are many legends taught how to deliver quick, powerful blows with nearly concerning martial arts masters who had such control of every part of the body, including dangerous kicks with their qi that they could throw opponents across rooms the legs. Some schools teach “full contact” karate, for development and use of qi are termed internal martial which students wear protective equipment to absorb the arts. Kung fu means “skill” in Chinese, and is the generic Many martial arts combine internal and external methods. On the meridians there are certain Kung fu consists of thousands of hard and soft tech- points (acupoints) where qi accumulates. Yin and yang are the two separate but com- to invent a martial art that emphasized non-aggression. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 1295 In Japanese, aikido means “connecting with life energy. Aikido Some schools allow students to attend as many classes also teaches internal methods of cultivating qi energy. Two to three classes per week are recom- teaches the philosophical ideals of love and harmony as mended. Some schools charge a flat fee for Judo means “gentle way” in Japanese and was de- training from beginner to expert. Many schools require veloped as an educational tool by a teacher named Jigoro students to regularly participate in competitions, and fees Kano in the 1800s. Students are required to pur- moves as holds and grappling, and teaches students how chase uniforms and equipment as well. Uniforms may to disarm attackers by applying pressure to specific sen- cost $100 or more, and protective equipment may cost sitive points on the body. Prospective martial arts students should search for These movements emphasize posture and the flow of the the style of martial arts that best meets their objectives. Although considered a martial art and Students should attend classes at various schools (dojos), consisting of fighting postures, tai chi is used more as a and should talk to students and teachers to find the right meditation and health technique. Finding a good instructor may be even more people, particularly the elderly, use tai chi daily to im- important than finding the right school. Kendo is traditional Japanese sword fighting, quired to take blows and falls as part of the learning teaching students how to use various weapons with agili- process, as well as to fight with weapons. Kendo also emphasizes dis- should search for teachers and schools who teach these cipline and ethics. People with health condi- tions and injuries should consult a physician before at- tempting a martial art, and should find a teacher familiar A martial arts session with their condition.
Clinically and radiologically discount himcolin 30 gm amex, it may be impossible to distin- guish between grade III acromioclavicular separations buy himcolin 30gm mastercard, type II fractures of the distal end of the clavicle himcolin 30 gm online, and type IV fractures involving rupture of the periosteum cheap 30gm himcolin. There were satisfactory levels of inter- and intraobserver variation for reliability and reproducibility effective 30 gm himcolin. Fractures of the medial fifth (type 1), undisplaced diaphyseal fractures (type 2A) and fractures or the outer firth (type 3A) usually had a be- nign prognosis. The incidence of complications of union was higher in displaced diaphyseal (type 2B) and displaced outer-fifth (type 3B) frac- tures. In addition to displacement, the extent of comminution in type- 2B fractures was a risk factor for delayed and nonunion. Type I was the fifth of the bone ly- ing medial to a vertical line drawn upwards from the centre of the first rib. Type 3 was the fifth of the bone lateral to a vertical line drawn up- wards from the centre of the base of the coracoid process, a point nor- mally marked by the conoid tuberosity. Fractures were also divided into subgroups A and B depending on displacement (greater or less than 100% translation) of the major frag- ments. This is often difficult because of the sigmoid shape of the clavi- cle, particularly at the ends of the bone, but weight-bearing, oblique, 308 caudal-tilted or modified axial views were used in cases in which uncertainty existed. Type-IA and type-IB fractures were further subdivided into extra- or intraarticular; type-2A fractures were subdivided according to the pres- ence of angulation, but in all these injuries there was residual bony con- tact. In the type-2B subgroup there was no residual contact between the major fragments and variable degrees of shortening which was usually apparent both clinically and radiologically. Two further subgroups of type-2B were simple or wedge comminuted fractures (type 2B1) and isolated segmental or segmentally comminuted fractures (type 2B2). Type-3A and type-3B fractures were also subdivided according to articu- lar involvement. Displacement in type-3B injuries showed a characteris- tic pattern of elevation and posterior displacement of the shaft frag- ment, with either a simple oblique configuration or with avulsion of an inferior bone fragment. Type-I and type-2 fractures were seen in a younger population and with a greater M:F ratio than type-3 fractures. Type-2A2 fractures oc- curred in a younger population than the other fractures; all but two 116 10 Classifications of fractures of the clavicle Fig. Type-2 fractures were mainly caused by sport or RTAs whereas simple falls were the commonest cause of type-I and type-3 fractures. Since all mini- mally displaced fractures pose analogous problems in treatment and prognosis, it seems logical that they be grouped together, regardless of the number of fracture lines. Displaced fractures require more accurate identification in order to depict both the effect of muscle attachments on free fragments as well as the circulatory status and continuity of the articular surface. The classification illustrated was formed to identify the types of displacement that were actually encountered (Fig. Group I, minimum displacement This group includes all fractures, regardless of the level or number of fracture lines, in which no segment is displaced more than 1. The fragments are usually held together by soft tissue or are im- pacted, permitting early functional exercises; however, a brief period of immobilization my be required before the head and shaft rotate as one. Group II, articular-segment displacement Pure displacement at the anatomical neck without separation of one tu- berosity or both is quite rare. This lesion can escape notice unless a good anteroposterior roentgenogram of the upper end of the humerus is obtained and may lead to disability because of malunion or avascular necrosis. Group I includes all proximal humeral fractures, regardless of the number of lines of cleavage, in which no segment is displaced more than 1cm or angulated more than 458 Group II, the anatomic-neck fracture, is a displacement of the head segment, with or without hairline tuberosity compo- nents. Group III, the surgical-neck fracture, is a displacement of the shaft segment with the rotator cuff intact. Group IV, the greater tuberosity displacement, occurs as a two-part and, with an unimpacted surgical-neck fracture, as a three-part lesion. Group V, the lesser tuberosity, occurs as a two-part and, with an unimpacted surgi- cal-neck fracture, as a three-part lesion. Groups IV and V blend as the four-part frac- ture in which both tuberosities are displaced. Group VI, the fracture/dislocation, im- plies damage outside the joint space, anteriorly and posteriorly, and segment distri- bution is important in estimating the circulation of the head. The articular surface, in which portions of the head are dislocated, are the impression fracture and the head-splitting fracture. Although fissure fractures may be present proximally, the rotator- cuff attachments are intact and hold the head in neutral rotation.
They are initially A Review of 100 Cases and a New Rating System for separate but begin to fuse early in pregnancy purchase himcolin 30gm without a prescription. PO Box Amniocentesis is usually performed in the second 8923 himcolin 30gm online, New Fairfield discount 30 gm himcolin otc, CT 06812-8923 best himcolin 30gm. Common effects of aneuploidy include an and prevents the fetus buy himcolin 30gm otc, or parts of it, from becoming increased risk for pregnancy loss or, in live borns, for attached to the amnion. Fetal Down syndrome is the most common form of ane- cells, primarily derived from the skin, digestive system, uploidy in live born infants, occurring in approximately and urinary tract, are suspended within the fluid. In women smaller number of cells from the amnion and placenta are who are 35 years old, the risk of having a child with also present. Finally, the fetus produces a number of dif- Down syndrome is higher, or roughly one in 385 at deliv- ferent chemical substances that also pass into the amni- ery. These substances may be used, in some the only chromosome abnormality that may occur. Other higher-risk pregnancies, either to assess fetal lung matu- numerical abnormalities are possible, yielding genetic rity or to determine if the fetus has a viral infection. In the conditions that may be either more or less severe than second trimester of pregnancy, one particular protein, Down syndrome. Thus, a woman is often given a risk, called alpha-fetoprotein, is commonly used to screen for based solely on her age, of having a child with any type certain structural birth defects. At age 35, this total risk is It is possible to perform amniocentesis in a twin approximately one in 200. Amniocentesis in some higher-order pregnan- increased to one in 65, and, at age 45, this risk is one in cies, such as triplets, has also been reported. The dye will temporarily a previous child with, a known genetic condition; abnor- tinge the fluid blue-green. A second needle is inserted mal prenatal screening results, such as ultrasound or a into the next amniotic sac with ultrasound guidance. If blood test; or one parent with a previously identified the fluid withdrawn is pale yellow, a sample from the structural chromosome rearrangement. In the case of may make it more likely for a couple to have a child with monoamniotic (in one amniotic sac) twins or triplets, the a genetic condition. Side effects Women who have had an amniocentesis often Indications for amniocentesis describe it as uncomfortable, involving some mild pres- Amniocentesis has been considered a standard of sure or pain as the needle is inserted. This medicine has no effect on the fetus, that amniocentesis be offered to all expectant mothers but may help the mother feel more comfortable during age 35 and older. An experienced physician can, on average, because advancing maternal age is associated with an perform amniocentesis in approximately one to two increasing risk of having a baby with a numerical chro- minutes. At age 35, this risk is approxi- Common complaints after amniocentesis include mately equivalent to the risk of pregnancy loss associated mild abdominal tenderness at the site of needle insertion with amniocentesis. These usually go away within one to A person normally has a total of 46 chromosomes two days. More serious complications are significantly in each cell of his or her body, with the exception of less common but include leakage of amniotic fluid, vagi- sperm or egg cells, which each have only 23. These complications get older, there is an increased risk of producing an egg are estimated to occur in fewer than 1% of pregnancies. This leads to an egg cell In some women, complications after amniocentesis may with 24 chromosomes rather than the normal 23. Aneuploidy results in a con- out amniocentesis, is approximately 2–3% in her second ceptus (product of conception) with either too much or trimester. This, in turn, leads to abnormal or technician, the risk for an amniocentesis-related preg- 74 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GENETIC DISORDERS KEY TERMS Amnion—Thin, tough membrane surrounding the Fetus—The term used to describe a developing embryo and containing the amniotic fluid. The term embryo is Anesthetic—Drug used to temporarily cause loss of used prior to the third month. An anesthetic may either be general, associated with a loss of con- Fibroid—A non-cancerous tumor of connective tis- sciousness, or local, affecting one area only without sue made of elongated, thread-like structures, or loss of consciousness. Anesthetics are administered fibers, which usually grow slowly and are contained either via inhalation or needle injection. Fibroids are firm in con- sistency but may become painful if they start to Chorion—The outer membrane of the amniotic sac.
Clusters; catalase-positive Staphylococcus aureus Clusters; catalase-positive; coagulase- negative; beta-hemolytic; yellow pigment Staphylococcus epidermidis Clusters; catalase-positive; coagulase- positive; skin flora Staphylococcus saprophyticus Clusters; catalase-positive; coagulase- positive Streptococcus spp order himcolin 30 gm overnight delivery. Pairs buy discount himcolin 30gm line, chains; catalase-negative Streptococcus agalactiae (group B) Pairs quality 30 gm himcolin, chains; catalase-negative; vaginal flora Streptococcus bovis (group D Pairs discount himcolin 30 gm amex, chains; catalase-negative Enterococcus) Streptococcus faecalis (group D Pairs cheap 30gm himcolin amex, chains; catalase-negative Enterococcus) Streptococcus pneumoniae Pairs, lancet-shaped; alpha-hemolytic; (Pneumococcus, group B) Optochin-sensitive Streptococcus pyogenes (group A) Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus viridans Pairs, chains; catalase-negative; alpha- hemolytic, Optochin-resistant GRAM-NEGATIVE COCCI Acinetobacter spp. Filamentous, branching pattern Moraxella (Branhamella) Diplococci in pairs catarrhalis Neisseria gonorrhoeae Diplococci in pairs, often intracellular; (gonococcus) ferments glucose but not maltose Neisseria meningitidis Diplococci in pairs;ferments glucose (meningococcus) and maltose Veillonella spp. Common vaginal bacterium; anaerobic Listeria monocytogenes Beta-hemolytic Mycobacterium spp. Lactose-negative, oxidase-negative Aeromonas hydrophilia Lactose-negative (usually), oxidase- positive Bacteroides fragilis Anaerobic Bordetella pertussis Coccoid rod Brucella (brucellosis) Coccoid rod Citrobacter spp. Long, pointed shape; anaerobic Haemophilus ducreyi (chancroid) Gram-negative bacilli Haemophilus influenzae Coccoid rod, requires chocolate agar to support growth Klebsiella spp. Lactose-positive Legionella pneumophila Stains poorly, use silver stain and special media Morganella morganii Lactose-negative, oxidase-negative Proteus mirabilis Lactose-negative, oxidase-negative, indole-negative Proteus vulgaris Lactose-negative, oxidase-negative, indole-positive (continued) 7 Clinical Microbiology 127 TABLE 7–1 (Continued) Gram Staining Pattern and Organisms Identifying Key Features GRAM-NEGATIVE BACILLI Providencia spp. Lactose-negative, oxidase-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lactose-negative, oxidase-positive blue-green pigment Salmonella spp. Lactose-negative, oxidase-negative 7 Serratia marcescens Lactose-negative, oxidative-negative, red pigment Shigella spp. Lactose-negative, oxidase-negative Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas) Lactose-negative, oxidase-negative maltophilia Vibrio cholerae (cholera) Gram-negative bacilli Yersinia enterocolitica Gram-negative bacilli Yersinia pestis (bubonic plague) Gram-negative bacilli *Organisms are aerobic unless otherwise specified. Gram stain characteristics of clinically important bacteria are shown in Table 7–1. India Ink Preparation India ink is used primarily on CSF to identify fungal organisms (especially cryptococci). KOH Preparation KOH (potassium hydroxide) preps are used to diagnose fungal infections. Skin scrapings of a lesion are usually obtained by gentle scraping with a #15 scalpel blade (see page 242 for description). A fishy odor from a vaginal prep suggests the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis (see page 291) 3. Put a coverslip over the specimen, and examine the slide for the branching hyphae and blastospores that indicate the presence of a fungus. If dense keratin and debris are present, allow the slide to sit for sev- eral hours and then repeat the microscopic examination. Lowering the substage con- denser provides better contrast between organisms and the background. The positive predictive value of the bacterial pathogen as a cause for the diarrhea is 70%. Mix a small amount of stool or mucus on a slide with 2 drops of Löeffler (methylene blue) stain. Mucus is preferred; if no mucus is present, use a small amount of stool from the outside of a formed stool. Examine the smear after 2–3 min to allow the white cells to take up the stain; then place a coverslip. Increased 7 white cells (usually polys) are seen in Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections, as well as ulcerative colitis and pseudo-membranous colitis-related diarrhea. White cells are absent or normal in cholera and in Giardia and viral (rotavirus, Norwalk virus, etc) infections. Tzanck Smear This technique (named after Arnault Tzanck) is used in the diagnosis of herpesvirus infec- tions (ie, herpes zoster or simplex). Clean a vesicle (not a pustule or crusted lesion) with alcohol, allow it to air dry, and gently unroof it with a #15 scalpel blade. Giemsa stain can also be used, however, the sample must be fixed for 10 min with methyl alcohol before the Giemsa is applied. Then use high-power oil immersion to identify multinucleated giant cells (epithelial cells infected with herpes viruses). This strongly suggests viral infection; culture is necessary to identify the spe- cific virus.
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