By E. Sugut. The Baptist College of Florida.
This reaction may be used to treat acetaldehyde buy 1mg finasteride free shipping, which can be used for energy or converted to alcohol dependence order finasteride 1 mg with visa. When metabolized to acetaldehyde buy finasteride 5 mg mastercard, alcohol no • A disulfiram-like reaction also may occur with other longer exerts depressant effects on the CNS discount 1mg finasteride visa. Although the drugs order 5 mg finasteride, including several cephalosporin antibiotics (cefa- rate of metabolism differs with acute ingestion or chronic in- mandole, cefonicid, cefoperazone, ceforanide, cefotetan), take and some other factors, it is approximately 120 mg/kg of chlorpropamide (Diabinese), tolbutamide (Orinase), and body weight or 10 mL/hour. Alcohol is metabolized at the same Alcohol Dependence rate regardless of the amount present in body tissues. In older adults, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol are es- Alcohol dependence involves acute or chronic consumption sentially the same as for younger adults. Psychological dependence, physical dependence, tol- erance, and cross-tolerance (with other CNS depressants) are prominent characteristics. Alcohol Interactions With Other Drugs Acute intoxication impairs thinking, judgment, and psy- Alcohol may cause several potentially signiﬁcant interactions chomotor coordination. These interactions often differ performance, accidents, and disturbed relationships with other between acute and chronic ingestion. Conscious control of behavior is lost, and exhibition- drug-metabolizing enzymes. This slows the metabolism of ism, aggressiveness, and assaultiveness often result. Chronic some drugs, thereby increasing their effects and the likeli- ingestion affects essentially all body systems and may cause hood of toxicity. Chronic ingestion induces metabolizing en- severe organ damage and mental problems. This increases the rate of metabolism and decreases marized in Box 15–1. Long-term ingestion of large amounts of alco- Signs and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal include agi- hol, however, causes liver damage and impaired ability to tation, anxiety, tremors, sweating, nausea, tachycardia, fever, metabolize drugs. Delirium tremens, the most serious form with other drugs, it is difﬁcult to predict effects of interactions of alcohol withdrawal, is characterized by confusion, dis- in particular people. However, some important interactions in- orientation, delusions, visual hallucinations, and other signs clude those with other CNS depressants, antihypertensive of acute psychosis. The intensity of the alcohol withdrawal agents, antidiabetic agents, oral anticoagulants, and disulﬁ- syndrome varies with the duration and amount of alcohol in- ram. The alcohol-dependent per- alcohol with these drugs may be lethal and should be son is unlikely to seek treatment for alcohol abuse unless an avoided. He or she is likely, however, to • With antihypertensive agents, alcohol potentiates va- seek treatment for other disorders, such as nervousness, anxi- sodilation and hypotensive effects. Thus, health • With oral antidiabetic drugs, alcohol potentiates hypo- professionals may recognize alcohol abuse in its early stages if glycemic effects. Acute ingestion increases anticoagulant the second step is probably confronting the client with evi- effects and the risk of bleeding. Chronic ingestion dence of alcohol abuse and trying to elicit cooperation. Unless CHAPTER 15 SUBSTANCE ABUSE DISORDERS 241 the client admits that alcohol abuse is a problem and agrees to levels of the drugs and increase their toxicity. Because of these participate in a treatment program, success is unlikely. If the client agrees to treatment, the three primary ap- Naltrexone is an opiate antagonist that reduces craving for proaches are psychological counseling, referral to a self-help alcohol and increases abstinence rates when combined with group such as Alcoholics Anonymous, and drug therapy. A possible mechanism is blockade of Acute intoxication with alcohol does not usually require the endogenous opioid system, which is thought to reinforce treatment. If the client is hyperactive and combative, a sedative- alcohol craving and consumption. The client must be closely observed effect is nausea; others include anxiety, dizziness, drowsi- because sedatives potentiate alcohol, and excessive CNS de- ness, headache, insomnia, nervousness, and vomiting. If the client is already sedated and stu- trexone is hepatotoxic in high doses and contraindicated in porous, he or she can be allowed to sleep off the alcohol effects. In addition to drug therapy to treat withdrawal and For example, respiratory depression may require insertion of maintain sobriety, alcohol abusers often need treatment of an artiﬁcial airway and mechanical ventilation. Anti- Benzodiazepine antianxiety agents are the drugs of choice depressant drugs seem to decrease alcohol intake as well as for treating alcohol withdrawal syndromes.
Bacterial pneumonia is extra dose may be needed during or after dialysis finasteride 1 mg overnight delivery. Clients with usually treated with a broad-spectrum antibiotic until culture acute renal failure receiving continuous renal replacement and susceptibility reports become available generic finasteride 1 mg on-line. Selection of anti- therapy (CRRT) may also require adjustments in drug doses cheap 5 mg finasteride with visa. Reference texts or scien- tiﬁc articles should be consulted to determine appropriate Home Care doses of antibiotics in these clients generic finasteride 1 mg with amex. Infections are among the most common illnesses in all age Use in Hepatic Impairment groups generic 1 mg finasteride, and they are often treated by antibiotic therapy at home, with medications administered by the client or a family Antimicrobial therapy in clients with liver impairment is member caregiver. Some drugs are metabolized by the liver bilities may include teaching family members how to admin- (eg, cefoperazone, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, erythro- ister antibiotics (eg, teaching a parent how to store and measure mycin), and dosage must be reduced in clients with severe a liquid antibiotic), care for the person with an infection, and liver impairment. Some are associated with elevations of liver protect other people in the environment from the infection. Laboratory monitoring ough handwashing, use of gloves when indicated, and appro- may be helpful in high-risk populations. However, acute liver injuries Increasingly, IV antibiotics are being given in the home. Some infections dice have been reported with ticarcillin/clavulanate (Timentin). Numerous people and agencies may be involved cholestatic jaundice or hepatic dysfunction associated with in providing this service. First, the client and family need to their use and must be used with caution in clients with hepatic be able and willing to manage some aspects of therapy and impairment. Second, arrange- Some ﬂuoroquinolones have been associated with liver en- ments must be made for procuring equipment, supplies, and zyme abnormalities and hepatotoxicity (eg, hepatitis, liver im- medication. The drugs should be used cautiously in companies help families prepare and use IV infusion pumps. The drug should be stopped if jaundice or any other symp- unit-dose package ready for administration. CHAPTER 33 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIMICROBIAL DRUGS 507 The role of the home care nurse includes teaching the continuous infusion, whether the client has a peripheral or client and caregiver to store and administer the medication, central IV line, and other factors. The family should be pro- monitor the IV site, monitor the infection, manage problems, vided with detailed instructions and emergency telephone and report client responses. Speciﬁc responsibilities may numbers of the home care nurse, the pharmacy, and the sup- vary according to drug administration intermittently or by ply company. NURSING Antimicrobial Drugs ACTIONS NURSING ACTIONS RATIONALE/EXPLANATION 1. Give most oral antimicrobials on an empty stomach, To decrease binding to foods and inactivation by gastric acid approximately 1 h before or 2 h after meals. For oral and parenteral solutions from powder forms, follow Several antimicrobial drugs are marketed in powder forms because label instructions for mixing and storing. When mixed, measured amounts of diluent must be added for drug dissolution and the appropriate concentration. None of the solutions should be used after the expiration date because drug decomposition is likely. Give parenteral antimicrobial solutions alone; do not mix To avoid chemical and physical incompatibilities that may cause with any other drug in a syringe or intravenous (IV) solution. Give intramuscular (IM) antimicrobials deeply into large To decrease tissue irritation muscle masses (preferably gluteal muscles), and rotate injec- tion sites. For IV administration, use dilute solutions, give direct in- Most antimicrobials that are given IV can be given by intermittent jections slowly and intermittent infusions over 30 to 60 min. Although instructions vary with speciﬁc drugs, most re- After infusions, ﬂush the IV tubing with at least 10 mL of IV constituted drugs can be further diluted with 50 to 100 mL of IV solution. For children, check references about individual drugs ﬂuid (D W, NS, D -1⁄ % or D -1⁄ % NaCl). Dilution and slow ad- 5 5 4 5 2 to avoid excessive concentrations and excessive ﬂuids. Flushing ensures that the entire dose is given and prevents contact between drugs in the tubing. With local infections, observe for decreased redness, Signs and symptoms of inﬂammation and infection usually sub- edema, heat, and pain. With systemic infections, observe for decreased fever and regardless of the cause, local manifestations vary with the type or white blood cell count, increased appetite, and reports of feel- location of the infection.
To those physicians who can treat the Veronicas of this world cheap 5 mg finasteride fast delivery, I can only say I wish you well discount 1 mg finasteride mastercard. You are a rare breed discount 1mg finasteride amex, and I hope you will record your experiences for all to read buy generic finasteride 1 mg on line. I knew that I lacked the reﬂexes and clinical tools this broader clinical model would require purchase finasteride 5mg line. It was time for me to retool and learn to listen and to guide and coach patients. Armed with my experiences with Carl Rogers, Joseph Sapira, and the videotaping sessions in Fairhope, I found new methods of interviewing and intervening. Tese methods include: • Having the primary intention of being maximally helpful with each patient. I can lump all of these into what can be called establishing full at- tention and rapport with the patient. If these steps are blocked or not accepted by the patient, the encounters will become dif- ﬁcult, if not impossible. Such a reaction from the patient should strongly suggest that the patient is enjoying secondary gain from being sick. Te next steps, beyond establishing rapport, are directed at as- sisting the patient to discover or recollect what he or she is doing or not doing to produce the symptoms. Tese steps are: • Avoiding speciﬁc diagnoses and disease labels until certain. In Tune with the Patient 157 • Having the patient use a diary when appropriate. In assisting the patient to uncover previously hidden correlations, I found it very helpful to pay attention to verbs in his or her speech. I found some patients to be either highly verbal or highly visual as expressed through visual or auditory verbs. I believe other patients operate more through feelings or kinesthetic systems. By switch- ing my verbs to match the verbs of the patients, I was able to as- sist some of them to recover otherwise hidden associations that correlated with their symptoms. Milton Erickson and Carl Rogers exerted a heavy inﬂuence on my clinical approach. As I outlined in Chapter 9, each patient I saw with chronic symptoms of unknown origin fell into one of ﬁve categories. Te patient has a hidden or obscure medical disease that explains the symptoms. I want to emphasize that I am not talking about all patients with medical diseases. I am describing a subset of patients who have missed diagnoses of medical diseases that are producing their symptoms or problems. Te medical diseases that ﬁt into this cat- egory will usually be very rare diseases a clinician would not readily think of, or the symptoms will be unusual symptoms for a common disease. With these, as with all patients, careful guidance and diary 158 Symptoms of Unknown Origin keeping will often lead one to the underlying medical disease. Since I excluded all patients with documented diseases from my study series, I did not write very much about this category in the book. Johnson in Chapter 3, whose reclusive and demented state was reversed with thyroid hormone. I only want to be sure to put medical diseases at the top of the list of categories for patients with symptoms of unknown origin: It is the ﬁrst duty of a physician to miss no treatable medical disease. Sometimes combinations of factors produce the symptoms, even when the diagnosis of a medical disease is very clear. I attended his weekly conferences at the University of Alabama in Birmingham and recall the case of a man with documented angina pectoris. Tis was in the years before coronary surgery, and the goal then was to prescribe medications and a plan to allow each patient to lead as full and active a life as possible within the limita- tions of the coronary disease. It turned out he only had anginal chest pain if he walked up a certain hill in the neighborhood after a full dinner, on a cool night, and after an argu- ment with his wife. With any one of these, he could walk up the hill In Tune with the Patient 159 without angina.
Superinfections are common and potentially serious because responsible microorgan- isms are often drug-resistant staphylococci generic 5mg finasteride with visa, gram-negative organ- isms (eg generic finasteride 5mg overnight delivery, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) finasteride 5mg fast delivery, or fungi (eg buy generic finasteride 1 mg, Candida) purchase finasteride 5 mg on line. These and other antibiotics suppress normal bacterial ﬂora and allow the over- growth of Clostridium difﬁcile. The organism produces a toxin that kills mucosal cells and produces superﬁcial ulcerations that are visible with sigmoidoscopy. Discontinuing the drug and giving metronidazole or oral vancomycin are curative measures. Phlebitis at IV sites; pain at IM sites Many antimicrobial parenteral solutions are irritating to body tissues. Nausea and vomiting These often occur with oral antimicrobials, probably from irritation of gastric mucosa. Diarrhea Commonly occurs, caused by irritation of gastrointestinal mu- cosa and changes in intestinal bacterial flora; and may range from mild to severe. Nephrotoxicity (1) See AIN, earlier More likely to occur in clients who are elderly or who have impaired renal function. Neurotoxicity—confusion, hallucinations, neuromuscular More likely with large IV doses of penicillins or cephalosporins, irritability, convulsive seizures especially in clients with impaired renal function. Bleeding—hypoprothrombinemia, platelet dysfunction Most often associated with penicillins and cephalosporins. The most signiﬁcant interactions are those that alter effectiveness or increase drug toxicity. CHAPTER 33 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ANTIMICROBIAL DRUGS 509 SELECTED REFERENCES Review and Application Exercises Abate, B. Louis: Facts and spectrum of activity, and minimum inhibitory concen- Comparisons. Why are infections of the brain, eye, and prostate gland Clinical relevance, therapy, and prevention. What factors promote the development of drug-resistant Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 20(4), 247–278. Hospital-acquired infections: Realities of risks and microbial drug therapy? When a dose of an antibiotic is prescribed to prevent microbial pharmacotherapy. What special precautions are needed for clients with in the ICU: The growing importance of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Discuss similarities and differences between ness, safety, spectrum of antimicrobial activ- cephalosporins and penicillins. Differentiate cephalosporins in relation to administration, observation of client response, antimicrobial spectrum, indications for use, and teaching of clients. Apply principles of using beta-lactam anti- initial dose of a penicillin. Critical Thinking Scenario Kurt, 5 months of age, is brought to the urgent care center at 4 am. He has had a cold for 3 days and started to run a high temperature (over 39°C) last evening. He has been crying continuously for the last 8 hours and appears to be in pain. The physician examines him and tells the parents he has a middle ear infection, for which he prescribes amoxicillin 200 mg q8h for 10 days. Reﬂect on: Factors contributing to the increased incidence of ear infections in this age group. Factors in the situation that may make learning difﬁcult for the parents, and how you will individualize teaching. OVERVIEW Penicillinase and cephalosporinase are beta-lactamase enzymes that act on penicillins and cephalosporins, respectively. Beta-lactam antibacterials derive their name from the beta- Despite the common element of a beta-lactam ring, char- lactam ring that is part of their chemical structure.
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